You have no web server installed.
You'd like to install a web server for your Laravel application to use.
laravel:~$ sudo apt-get install -y apache2 libapache2-mod-php5 laravel:~$ sudo a2enmod rewrite laravel:~$ sudo service apache2 restart
Apache is the most dominant web server on the Internet.
Notice the second line in the above instructions. This enables mod-rewrite with Apache. This is required for Laravel to work correctly.
See also Creating an Apache VirtualHost